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What is a transformer? How it works

Hi Friends,
In this article I will be telling you, “What is a Transformer, how a transformer works”. Let's get started...

A transformer is a device based on the principle of mutual induction which is used for converting large alternating current at low voltage into small current at high voltage and vice-versa. 

The Transformers which convert low voltage source into higher ones are called ‘step-up’ transformers, while those which convert high voltages into lower ones are called step down transformers. Transformers are used only in AC (not in DC).


A simple Transformer consists of two coils called the primary and the secondary which are insulated from each other and bound on a common soft iron laminated core. One of the coils has a smaller number of turns of thick insulated copper wire while the other has a large number of turns of thin insulated copper wire. In a step up Transformer the coil of thick copper wire having the smaller number of turns in the primary coil and the coil of thin wire having large number of turns in the secondary coil. In the step-up transformer the order is reversed.

Theory of Transformer

The given source of EMF se AC mains is always connected to the primary coil. When alternating current flows through the primary call then in each cycle of Karan to the core is magnetized once in one direction and once in the opposite direction. Hence an alternating magnetic flux is produced in the core.

Since the secondary coil also wound on the same core, the magnetic flux passing through it changes continuously due to the repeated magnetization and demagnetization of the core. Therefore buy mutual induction and alternating EMF of the same frequency is induced in the secondary coil. The induced EMF in the secondary coil depends upon the ratio of number of turns in the two coils.

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